The Foot And Common Foot Problems
The Normal Foot
The human foot is a masterpiece and a strong and complex mechanical structure made of 26 bones, 33 joints and more than a hundred muscles, tendons and ligaments. It has two longitudinal arches and a transverse arch.
A flat foot is a foot deformity in which the arches of the foot collapse, with the entire sole of the foot coming into complete or near-complete contact with the ground. This can cause discomfort, leg, hip and back problems. It can also cause tiredness and it is just uncomfortable to walk.
The longitudinal arch collapses upon weight bearing and this motion can cause extreme stress or inflammation on the plantar fascia. Pronation can cause severe discomfort and leads to other foot problems and posture problems affecting the knee, the hip and the lower back.
The lateral mid-foot has no longer contact to the ground during weight bearing and the foot is shaped like a bridge. The stability of the foot is compromised and many problems such as shoe-fitting problems,
lateral ankle instability, lower limb stress fractures, knee pain, back pain and tripping can develop.
A bunion is a deformity of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, the joint connecting the big to to the foot. The skin becomes irritated around the bunion and pain develops during walking. The joint becomes red and the toe is not straight anymore, it shifts towards the other toes.
Through intensive stress on the foot calcium deposits develop on the bottom of the heel bone forming a spur. This can cause extreem pain and people have dificulties walking. If not treated in time with orthopaedic insoles, stretching exercises and other means, steroid injections and ultrasound treatment might be necessary.